Garlic organosulfur compounds reduce inflammation and oxidative stress during dengue virus infection
(searching for link to this article, your help in this search will be appreciated – will update when found)
University Of South Carolina School Of Medicine
Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology,
Academic Editor: Curt Hagedorn
Received: 26 April 2017; Accepted: 20 June 2017; Published 23 June 2017
Following retyped from printout; searching for link
Abstract: Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes significant global human disease and mortality. One approach to develop treatments for DENV infection and the prevention of severe disease is through investigation of natural medicines. Inflammation plays both beneficial and harmful roles during DENV infection. Studies have proposed that the oxidative stress response may be one mechanism responsible for triggering inflammation during DENV infection. Thus, blocking the oxidative stress response could reduce inflammation and the development of severe disease. Garlic has been shown to both reduce inflammation and affect the oxidative stress response. Here we show that the garlic active compounds diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl sulfide (DAS) and alliin reduced inflammation during DENV infection and show that this reduction is due to the effects of the oxidative stress response. These results suggest that garlic could be used as an alternative treatment for DENV infection and for the prevention of severe disease development.
Garlic has been used for centuries for the treatment of medical ailments and human disease. Crushed garlic contains active organosulfur compounds, which are responsible for the biological activity of garlic. Several of the compounds have been shown to have specific therapeutic and preventative effects on disease development and progression, including alliin diallyl sulfide (DAS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS). The combined data from a number of studies also indicates that the active components of garlic may be used to combat inflammation due to a variety of disorders.
Dengue virus causes serious human disease and mortality worldwide. In recent years, there has been increased epidemic activity and geographic expansion of dengue infection along with its mosquito vector, and it is considered a serious emerging global health problem. There are no vaccines or specific therapeutic agents approved for dengue virus, aside from Dengvaxia (Sanofi-Paseur, Lyon, France), which has been approved in a few endemic countries. Investigation of novel treatments to alleviate symptoms and lessen disease severity during dengue infection is necessary.
Inflammation is a main component of the host immune response to dengue infection, and can have both protective and pathogenic roles. For example, interferon gamma (IFN-?), interleukin 12 (IL-12) and interleukin 18 (IL-18) are essential for an effective host immune response against dengue virus infection. Other pro-inflammatory cytokines play pathogenic roles during dengue infection. For example, studies have shown that necrosis factor ‘?’ (TNF-‘?’), IL-8 and IL-10 levels are higher in patients with severe dengue versus mild dengue fever. Together, data have shown that excessive inflammation and the increased levels of certain cytokines and chernokines can contribute to vascular leakage and endothelial permeability that my lead to severe forms of dengue disease. Thus, the reduction of inflammation during dengue infection is key to reducing the chance that severe forms of dengue will develop. (the ‘?’ mark is used due to keyboard limitations)
Several herbal supplements have been under investigation in recent years for their ability to reduce inflammation during disease, including flavonoids, carotenoids and plants such as turmeric and garlic. Garlic has been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in several studies of disease, including cancer and heart disease. Garlic has been shown to have both immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative responses that can stop emerging tumor growth. Another study showed that several organosulfur compounds found in garlic, including DAS, DADS and DATS, were able to destroy cell in a gliobl astorna, indicating that garlic may be clinically useful to eradicate brain cancer cells in patients.
The oxidative stress response during dengue fever virus infection has been linked to the development of inflammation as well as the development of severe disease (dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/ dengue shock syndrome (DSS). It is thought that free radical release during the oxidative stress response may reduce the pro-inflammatory response leading to severe symptoms in dengue virus infection. Garlic has been shown to suppress nitric oxide production through the inhibition of NF-?8. Garlic has also been found to inhibit oxidative injury in liver through adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase.
Thus, the combined data from a number of studies have shown that garlic has ant-inflammatory activities, including the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, which is known to be a key player in the development of severe disease in dengue infection. Garlic has also been shown to act through the reduction of oxidative stress, and may inhibit the cytokine-induced inflammation found in severe dengue cases.
Here, we examined the role of garlic has on inflammation and the oxidative stress response during dengue virus infection in vitro.
Please note: This was retyped from a printout copy that did have the link to the article. As stated at the top of the first page, there is a search to find the link to this vital document. Your help to discover the link will be greatly appreciated. /senior1938voice / NM